Latest Publications

Violence and mental illness

Whiting D, Lichtenstein P,  Fazel S (2021). Violence and mental disorders: a structured review of associations by individual diagnoses, risk factors, and risk assessment. Lancet Psychiatry 8: 150-161. 

Sariaslan A, Arseneault L, Larsson H, Lichtenstein P, Fazel S. (2020) Risk of subjection to violence and perpetration of violence in persons with psychiatric disorders in Sweden. JAMA Psychiatry 77: 359-367;  doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.4275

Senior M, Fazel S, Tsiachristas A. (2020). The economic impact of violence perpetration in severe mental illness: a retrospective, prevalence-based analysis in England and Wales. Lancet Public Health 5 (2): e99-e106

Yu R, Nevado-Holgado AJ, Molero Y, D’Onofrio BM, Larsson H, Howard LM, Fazel S. (2019). Mental disorders and intimate partner violence perpetrated by men towards women: A Swedish population-based longitudinal study. PLoS Medicine;

Fazel S, Smith EN, Chang Z, Geddes JR. (2018) Risk factors for interpersonal violence: an umbrella review of meta-analyses. British Journal of Psychiatry 213 (4), 609-614.

Yu R et al. (2017). Depression and violence in adolescence and young adults: findings from three longitudinal cohorts. J Am Acad Child Adoles Psychiatry 56 (8), 652-658.

Sariaslan A, Larsson H, Fazel S. (2016) Genetic and environmental. determinants of violence risk in psychotic disorders: a multivariate quantitative genetic study of 1.8 million Swedish twins and siblings. Molecular Psychiatry; 21: 1251-1256.

Sariaslan A, Lichtenstein P, Larsson H, Fazel S. (2016) Triggers for violent criminality in patients with psychotic disorders. JAMA Psychiatry; 73: 796-803.

Fazel S, Wolf A, Chang Z, Larson H, Goodwin G, Lichtenstein P. (2015) Depression and violent crime: Swedish population study. Lancet Psychiatry 2: 224-232

Fazel S, Wolf A, Palm C, Lichtenstein P. (2014) Violent crime, suicide, and premature mortality in patients with schizophrenia and related disorders: a 38-year total population study in Sweden. Lancet Psychiatry 1: 44-54.

Prisoner health

Beaudry G, Zhong S, Whiting D, Javid B, Frater J, Fazel S. (2020) Managing outbreaks of highly contagious diseases in prisons: a systematic review. BMJ Global Health 5 (11): e003201.

Baranyi G, Scholl C, Fazel S, Patel V, Priebe S, Mundt AP. (2019) Severe mental illness and substance use disorders in prisoners in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence studies. Lancet Global Health 7 (4), e461-e471.

Fazel S. (2018). Editorial: Synthesizing the evidence on prisoner health – Taking Stock and Moving Forward. American Journal of Epidemiology 187:1137–1139 [editorial]

Baranyi G et al. (2018)  Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in prisoners. Epidemiologic Reviews,

Mundt A et al. (2018) Substance use during imprisonment in low- and middle-income countries. Epidemiologic Reviews,

Fazel S, Yoon IA, Hayes AJ (2017). Substance use disorders in prisoners: an updated systematic review and meta-regression analysis in recently incarcerated men and women. Addiction 112 (10): 1725-1739.

Yoon I, Slade K, Fazel S. (2017) Outcomes of psychological therapies for prisoners with mental health problems: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 85: 783-802.

Fazel S, Hayes A, Bartellas K, Trestman R. (2016) Mental health of prisoners: prevalence, adverse outcomes, and interventions. Lancet Psychiatry 3: 871-881.

Fazel S, Seewald K. (2012) Severe mental illness in 33 588 prisoners worldwide: systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Br J Psychiatry 200: 364-73.

Fazel S, Baillargeon J. (2011) The health of prisoners. Lancet 377: 956-965.

Released prisoners – mortality and reoffending risks

Chang Z, Lichtenstein P, Långström N, Larsson H, Fazel S. (2016) Association between prescription of major psychotropic medications and violent reoffending after prison release. JAMA 316(17): 1798-1807.

Sariaslan A, Larsson H, Lichtenstein P, Fazel S. (2017) Neighbourhood influences on violent reoffending risk in released prisoners diagnosed with psychotic disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin 43: 1011-1020.

Chang Z, Larsson H, Lichtenstein P, Fazel S. (2015) Psychiatric disorders and violent reoffending: a national cohort study of convicted prisoners in Sweden, Lancet Psychiatry 2: 891-900.

Yukhnenko D, Sridhar S, Fazel S. (2019) A systematic review of criminal recidivism rates worldwide: 3-year update. Wellcome Open Research:

Prisoner self harm and suicide risk

Zhong S, Senior M, Yu R, Perry AE, Hawton K, Shaw J, Fazel S. Risk factors for suicide in prisons: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Public Health 2021; 6 (3): e164-e174

Favril, L, Yu R, Hawton K, Fazel S. Risk factors for self-harm in prison: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry 2020; 7 (8): 682-691.

Domenico FD et al. (2020) 1324 prison suicides in 10 countries in South America: incidence, relative risks, and ecological factors. Social Psychiatry Psychiatric Epidemiology 56 (2): 315-323.

Fazel S, Ramesh T, Hawton K. (2017) Suicide in prisons: an international study of prevalence and contributory factors. Lancet Psychiatry 4: 946–952.

Marzano L, Hawton K, Rivlin A, Smith EN, Piper M, Fazel S. (2016) Prevention of suicidal behaviour in prisons. Crisis 37: 323-334.

Hawton K, Linsell L, Adeniji T, Sariaslan A, Fazel S (2014) Self-harm in prisons in England and Wales: an epidemiological study of prevalence, risk factors, clustering, and subsequent suicide. Lancet 383: 1147-54.

Violence risk assessment

Fazel S. (2019). The Scientific Validity of Current Approaches to Violence and Criminal Risk Assessment. In: Predictive Sentencing: Normative and Empirical Perspectives, 197 (London: Bloomsbury).

Fazel S, A Wolf, M Vazquez-Montes, TR Fanshawe. (2019) Prediction of violent reoffending in prisoners and individuals on probation: a Dutch validation study (OxRec). Scientific Reports 9 (1), 841.

Ramesh T et al. (2018) Use of risk assessment instruments to predict violence in forensic psychiatric hospitals: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Psychiatry 52, 47–53.

Fazel S, Wolf A. (2017) Selecting a risk assessment tool in practice: a 10-point guide. Evidence-Based Mental Health

Fazel S, Wolf A, Larsson H, Lichtenstein P, Mallett S, Fanshawe TR. (2017) Identification of low risk violent crime in severe mental illness with a clinical prediction tool (Oxford Mental Illness and Violence tool [OxMIV]): a derivation and validation study. Lancet Psychiatry 4: 461-68.

Fazel S et al. (2016) Prediction of violent reoffending on release from prison: derivation and external validation of a scalable tool (OxRec). Lancet Psychiatry 3: 535-543

Wolf A at al. (2017) Prediction of violent crime on discharge from secure psychiatric hospitals: a clinical prediction rule (FoVOx). European Psychiatry

Douglas T, Pugh J, Singh I, Savulescu J, Fazel S. (2017) Risk assessment tools in criminal justice and forensic psychiatry: the need for better data. European Psychiatry 42: 134-137.

Singh J, Grann M, Fazel S (2013) Authorship bias in violence risk assessment? A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 8(9): e72484.

Fazel S, Singh JP, Doll H, Grann M. (2012) Use of risk assessment instruments to predict violence and antisocial behaviour in 73 samples involving 24 827 people: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 345:e4692.

Suicide in neuropsychiatric conditions

S Fazel, B Runeson. (2020) Suicide. New England Journal of Medicine; 382: 266-74

Yu R …. Fazel S. (2021) Factors associated with suicide risk among Chinese adults: a prospective cohort study of 0.5 million individuals. PLoS Medicine 18(3): e1003545

Fazel S, O’Reilly L. (2020) Machine learning for suicide research – can it improve risk factor identification? JAMA Psychiatry 77 (1):13-14

Chen Q, …, Fazel S. (2020) Predicting suicide attempt or suicide death following a visit to psychiatric speciality care: a machine learning study using Swedish national registry data. PLoS Medicine 27 (11): e1003416

Fazel S, A Wolf, H Larsson, S Mallett, TR Fanshawe. (2019) The prediction of suicide in severe mental illness: development and validation of a clinical prediction rule (OxMIS). Translational Psychiatry 9 (1), 98.

Chesney E, Goodwin GM, Fazel S. (2014) Risks of all-cause and suicide mortality in mental disorders: a meta-review. World Psychiatry 13(2): 153-60.

Fazel S, Pillas D, Wolf A, Lichtenstein P, Långström N. (2014) Suicide, fatal accidents, and other causes of premature mortality in traumatic brain injury: A 41-year Swedish population study. JAMA Psychiatry 71(3): 326-33.

Fazel S, Wolf A, Långström N, Newton CR, Lichtenstein P. (2013) Premature mortality in epilepsy and the role of psychiatric comorbidity: a total population study. Lancet, 382(9905): 1646-54.

Forensic Psychiatry

Yukhnenko D, Blackwood N, Fazel S. (2020) Risk Factors for recidivism in individuals receiving community sentences: a systematic review and meta-analysis. CNS Spectrums 2020; 25 (2): 252-263

Wolf A, Whiting D, Fazel S.  (2017) Violence prevention in psychiatry: an umbrella review of interventions in general and forensic psychiatry. J Forensic Psychiatry Psychology 28: 659-673.

Fazel S, Fimińska Z, Cocks C, Coid J. (2016) Patient outcomes following discharge from secure psychiatric hospitals: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 208(1): 17-25.


Sariaslan A, Zetterqvist J, Lichtenstein P, Leucht S, Fazel S. (2021) Associations between individual antipsychotics and the risk of arrests and convictions of violent and other crime: a nationwide within-individual study of 74,925 persons. Psychological Medicine (in press)

Paljarvi T, Strang J, Quinn PD, Luciano S, Fazel S. (2021) Abuse-deterrent extended-release oxycodone and risk of opioid-related harm. Addiction 2021; Epub 4 January 2021:

Molero Y, Cipriani A, Larsson H, Lichtenstein P, D’Onofrio BM, Fazel S. (2020) Associations between statin use and suicidality, depression, anxiety and seizures: a Swedish total-population cohort study. Lancet Psychiatry 7 (11): 982-990

Molero Y, Larsson H, BM D’Onofrio, DJ Sharp, S Fazel. (2019) Associations between gabapentinoids and suicidal behaviour, unintentional overdoses, injuries, road traffic incidents, and violent crime: population based cohort study in Sweden. BMJ 365, l2147.

Molero Y et al (2018). Medications for alcohol and opioid use disorders and risk of suicidal behavior, accidental overdoses, and crime. American Journal of Psychiatry 175 (10), 970-978.

Molero Y, Lichtenstein P, Zetterqvist J, Gumpert CH, Fazel S. (2015) Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and violent crime: a cohort study. PLoS Medicine 12: e1001875.

Molero Y, Lichtenstein P, Zetterqvist J, Gumpert CH, Fazel S. (2015) Varenicline and risk of psychiatric conditions, suicidal behavior, criminal offending, and transport accidents and offences: population based cohort study. BMJ 350: h2388.

Fazel S, Zetterqvist J, Larsson H, Långström N, Lichtenstein P (2014). Antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and risk of violent crime. Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60379-2.

Lichtenstein P et al. (2012) Medication for Attention Deficit–Hyperactivity Disorder and Criminality. N Engl J Med 367: 2006-14.


Nilsson SF, Nordentoft M, Fazel S, Laursen TM. (2020) Homelessness and police-recorded crime victimisation: a nationwide, register-based cohort study. Lancet Public Health 5: e333-e341

Fazel S, Geddes JR, Kushel M. (2014) The health of homeless people in high-income countries: descriptive epidemiology, health consequences, and clinical and policy recommendations. Lancet 384: 1529-40.

Selected book chapters

Fazel S, Toynbee M. Associations between psychiatric disorder and offending. In: New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry. Oxford: OUP, 2020

Whiting D, Ryland R, Fazel S. Forensic mental health treatment and recidivism. In: The Routledge Handbook of the philosophy and science of punishment 2021. 

Fazel S, Bjørkly S (2016) “Methodological Considerations in Risk Assessment Research”, Singh JP, Bjørkly S, Fazel S (eds.) International Perspectives on Violence Risk Assessment (Oxford University Press).

Fazel S. Mental health assessment. In: Cambridge Handbook of Forensic Psychology (Cambridge University Press, 2010)


Singh JP, Bjørkly S, Fazel S (eds.) 2016. International Perspectives on Violence Risk Assessment, Oxford University Press.